Specific in-text citations

As it happens, there are sometimes exceptions and various other specialities in all rules. It is also the case with in-text citations according to the APA style.

If you include information obtained in a personal communication or interview (if it has not been published) in a professional text, you do not need to create a reference list entry for this interview. Therefore, in these cases, only a parenthetical citation in the text containing the author’s name, the words “personal communication”, and the date the interview took place is required. If the author of the statement is mentioned in the text, it is no longer necessary to include the author in parentheses. Statements from electronic personal communications (e.g. emails, SMS messages, chat tools, etc.) are then quoted in the same way.

Quotations of personal communication in the text may then look like this:

The HR department has only recently been established (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020).
E. M. Paradis confirmed this hypothesis (personal communication, August 8, 2022).

You may want to cite content that someone else has already cited. This is called secondary citation because, at that point, you are citing the primary source through a secondary source. However, using this type of citation is not recommended. It can only be used in exceptional circumstances if the original work is unavailable or written in a language you do not understand.

For example, if the publication Lyon et al. (2014) cited Rabbitt and you cannot read this original work, cite this author (Rabbitt) as the primary source and the publication (Lyon et al.) where you found this work as the secondary source. For example, (Rabbitt, 1982, cited in Lyon et al., 2014). Only the Lyon et al. publication appears in the list of references used.

If the primary text’s publication year is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation. E.g. Allport’s diary (cited in Nicholson, 2003)

Remember that you must also cite information from your own research/text that has already been published somewhere or that you have received an exam or credit based on. Then, indicate your own text by in-text citation, e.g. with the sentence “As I have stated in previous works…” or “As I wrote in the past…”.

The self-citation in the text can look like this:

As I have already stated in my bachelor thesis (Bláhová, 2020)

If you only mention a tool or website in the text without citing specific information from it, you do not need to cite the source. Just mark it in italics and add a web link if necessary.

For example, a mention might look like this:

ABC also uses social networks such as Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/abc) and Instagram (https://www.instagram.com/abc) to communicate with its clients.

Tables, graphs and figures from various documents can be cited in two ways:

  • In quotation form, you take the object as a whole and cite it as a whole (quotation), including a reference to its location in the source document.
  • You only process the data in the table/graph into your own form (other tables, etc.).

All figures and tables must be mentioned by their number in the text (a “callout”). Do not refer to the table/figure using either “the table above” or “the figure below.”

Assign table/figure number in the order as it appears, numbered consecutively, in your paper – not the figure number assigned to it in its original resource.

A note is added when further description, for example, definitions or copyright attribution, is necessary to explain the figure or table. Most student papers will require a general note for citation whether it is reprinted or adapted from another source. All the sources must have citation in note and full bibliographic entry in your Reference List.

For further information, you can use the APA 7th style website. Although APA style specifies that you must indicate the type of license and copyright permissions for use in the note for these materials, this information is not required for the purposes of qualifying papers in Prague University of Economics and Business. Keep in mind, however, that some license types (e.g., Creative Commons) are preferable to indicate for images because the license itself requires it.


Figure 1
Publishing in Czechia 2012-2015.

Note. Graph made by author based on data from Statista: Forecast: Industry revenue of “publishing of books, periodicals“ in Czechia 2012-2025 (2021).

Figure 2
The Global Inflation Outlook.

Note. From Statista The global inflation Outlook (Buchholz, 2022). CC BY-ND 4.0.



Buchholz, K. (2022-11-02). Infographic: The Global Inflation Outlook. Statista. https://www.statista.com/chart/27480/projected-annual-inflation-by-country/

Statista. (2021). Forecast: Industry revenue of “publishing of books, periodicals“ in Czechia 2012-2025 [Data set]. Statista. https://www.statista.com/forecasts/397929/publishing-of-books-periodicals-revenue-in-Czechia